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    納豆菌的研究現狀和應用進展

    發布時間:2013-10-25

     

      納豆(Natto)是日本傳統大豆發酵食品。自1987年納豆中發現強力溶栓激酶--納豆激酶以來,納豆引起了全世界的廣泛關注。納豆不僅具有獨特的風味和豐富的營養,而且因具有多種保健功能[1],被譽為"超級健康食品"。近年以來,我國學者對日本納豆做了大量的研究,從納豆發酵純菌種的分離鑒定到納豆的生理保健作用、功能性代謝成分的研究、高產特征酶類或某種代謝產物、納豆基因工程菌的選育等多方面取得了很好的進展。本文對納豆菌純菌種的種類、生理功能及應用研究現狀做了總結并對未來研究發展做了展望。

    納豆菌的起源、種類及特點

    傳統制作納豆是采用稻草作為發酵菌劑的來源,將煮熟的黃豆冷卻后用稻草包裹后于溫濕度比較高的地方自然發酵1~2d,等黃豆表面出現一種白色的黏液狀物質即可。目前在日本,納豆食品生產基本實現了工業化、連續化和商品化。

    Sawamura是第一個將納豆中篩選出的桿菌命名納豆桿菌的研究學者,Muto后來研究發現納豆桿菌屬于枯草芽孢桿菌屬,為需氧型革蘭氏陽性菌。自從1934年北海道大學農學部半詢教授首次成功地將分離的純種納豆苗(BacillusnattoNo.1)使用于納豆的工業化生產后,至今已知與納豆生產相關的主要純菌種[2]包括:BacillussubtilsIFO3007、cillusnattoSawamura06、BacillusnattoSawamuraIFO3339等。

    枯草芽孢屬的重要特點是能夠分泌各種胞外酶,包括蛋白酶、淀粉酶、谷氨酸轉肽酶(GTP)、脂肪酶、果聚糖蔗糖酶和植酸酶,納豆菌分泌的酶比其他枯草芽孢桿菌分泌同樣活性的酶高幾十倍。納豆菌具有芽孢,因而能耐鹽耐堿、耐高溫(100℃)及耐擠壓,在酸性胃環境中均能保持高度的穩定性,在腸胃道中不增殖,只在腸道上段迅速發育轉變成具有新陳代謝作用的營養型細胞。納豆菌的營養要求不高,可以在人體腸道中定殖,對人體腸道中微生態的平衡具有很重要的作用。

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